Cartilage Regeneration ‘20,000 Leagues Under the Sea’
Bioengineers at Rice University have discovered that intense pressure – similar to what someone would experience more than a half-mile beneath the ocean’s surface – stimulates cartilage cells to grow new tissue with nearly all of the properties of natural cartilage. The new method, which requires no stem cells, may eventually provide relief for thousands of arthritis sufferers.
Enzyme Plays Key Role in Cell Fate
The road to death or differentiation follows a similar course in embryonic stem cells, said researchers at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston in a report that appeared online recently in the journal Cell Stem Cell.
Scientists Develop “Cyborg Engineering” for Coronary Bypass Grafting
A team of London scientists have taken a major step in making the use of artificial veins and arteries in coronary bypass grafts a reality. In a study published in the June 2008 print issue of The FASEB Journal, researchers describe how they developed this artificial graft tissue by combining man-made materials with human cells to make it elastic and durable and so it can attach to host tissue.
VIDEO: In Vitro and In Vivo Bioluminescence Reporter Gene Imaging of Human Embryonic Stem Cells
In this video, the specific materials and methods needed for tracking stem cell proliferation and teratoma formation with bioluminescence imaging will be described.
Brain Stem Cells Can Be Awakened, Say Schepens Scientists
Scientists at Schepens Eye Research Institute have identified specific molecules in the brain that are responsible for awakening and putting to sleep brain stem cells, which, when activated, can transform into neurons and repair damaged brain tissue. Their findings are published online this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science.
Saving Teeth by Using Periodontal Ligament Regeneration
At the Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam, Dutch researcher Agnes Berendsen has studied the regeneration of the periodontal ligament by use of tissue engineering. The 3D in vitro model she has developed appears to be promising for regenerating periodontal ligament and may also prove valuable for restoring tendons and ligaments elsewhere in the body.
Gene Therapy Might Help Deaf Kids
Researchers from the Genetics Department of the Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion, Haifa, Israel, tested the capacity of aminoglycosides to treat sight loss caused by type 1 Usher syndrome using gene therapy involving antibiotics.
Finding Clues For Nerve Cell Repair
A new study at the Montreal Neurological Institute at McGill University identifies a key mechanism for the normal development of motor nerve cells – cells that control muscles. This finding is crucial to understanding and treating a range of conditions involving nerve cell loss or damage, from spinal cord injury to neurodegenerative diseases such as ALS, also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease.
Mouse Model Developed at UT Southwestern Mimics Hyperglycemia, Aids in Diabetes Research
UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers have genetically engineered a laboratory mouse in which pancreatic beta cells can regenerate after being induced to die. The new animal model’s regenerative ability may provide future insights into improved treatments of diabetes, which affects millions of Americans.
Novel Stem Cell Therapy Gives Hope to Boy with Rare Disease
For toddler Nate Liao, the slightest touch and every bite of food was painful. Nate was born with recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa, a genetic disease that causes skin and the lining of the digestive tract to slough off. In young adulthood, it leads to an aggressive, inevitably fatal skin cancer.
First Spine Surgery Using Adult Stem Cells Performed at The Medical Center of Aurora
Dr. Jeffrey Kleiner, spinal surgeon, performed the first diskectomy in the United States using adult stem cells to help repair the lower back. This milestone marks the beginning of how some types of back surgery will be performed in the future.
VIRxSYS Presents New VRX496 Phase II HIV Gene Therapy Trial Data
VIRxSYS Corporation will present additional results from its Phase II trial of VRX496, an investigational gene therapy for the treatment of AIDS, at the 2008 American Society of Gene Therapy Annual Meeting in Boston, Massachusetts.
ABSTRACTS, REVIEWS AND SPECIAL REPORTS
A Decrease of Cell Proliferation by Hypothermia in the Hippocampus of the Neonatal Rat
Hypothermia is a potential therapy for cerebral hypoxic ischemic injury of not only adults but also neonates. However, the side effects of hypothermia in the developing brain, where a massive amount of neurogenesis occurs, remain unclear. The researchers determine that the severe hypothermic environment induced a decrease of neurogenesis in the neonatal rat.
A Combined Chemical and Genetic Approach for the Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Here, the researchers have explored two approaches toward identifying conditions that can replace viral transduction of oncogenic transcription factors and enhance reprogramming efficiency. In one, they have found that neural progenitor cells can be reprogrammed with fewer genetic manipulations than previously reported somatic cells, and in the other they have found that small molecules may be able to replace viral integration of certain transcription factors and promote the reprogramming process.
PUMA Regulates Intestinal Progenitor Cell Radiosensitivity and Gastrointestinal Syndrome
The loss of crypt stem cells or villus endothelial cells has been suggested to be responsible for radiation-induced intestinal damage. The researchers report here a critical role of the BH3-only protein p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis in the radiosensitivity of intestinal epithelium and pathogenesis of GI syndrome.
Q&A: The Man Behind Embryonic Stem Cells
Ten years ago in a small, closet-like laboratory, James “Jamie” Thomson, an embryologist at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, changed the world by creating the first human embryonic stem cells. Few research experiments have generated as much hype or controversy. More recently, he played a key role in creating induced pluripotent stem cells, which might someday provide the benefits of embryonic stem cells without destroying embryos.
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